In the comments on my last post, I stated that teachings on Heavenly Mother  have generally been key to understanding what Mormon women can expect from exaltation. This post will elaborate on that.
If exaltation for the LDS man means becoming what his Heavenly Father is—a deified ruler and creator of worlds, guiding his spirit children from intelligence to their own exaltations —it stands to reason that exaltation for the LDS woman means becoming what her Heavenly Mother is. Periodically, LDS leaders have even stated this directly. For example, from an address delivered at BYU in 2010 by Elder Glenn L. Pace of the Seventy:
Sisters, I testify that when you stand in front of your heavenly parents in those royal courts on high and look into Her eyes and behold Her countenance, any question you ever had about the role of women in the kingdom will evaporate into the rich celestial air, because at that moment you will see standing directly in front of you, your divine nature and destiny. 
That Mormons generally believe in a Heavenly Mother is clear. That they often attribute to her divinity and (on some level) equality with the Father is also clear. LDS leaders have even, at varying times, spoken of Heavenly Mother as “procreator and parent . . . as co-creator of worlds, as coframer of the plan of salvation with the Father, and as a concerned and loving parent involved in our mortal probation.”  The difficulty is that these earnest beliefs and statements are undercut by the reality that nothing authoritative has been revealed about Heavenly Mother. As such, the disparity between what is known about Heavenly Mother and her role in creation (and thus, the divine nature and destiny of women) and what is known about Heavenly Father and his role in creation (along with the divine nature and destiny of men) is quite large.
These disparities include:
- Number. That there is only one Heavenly Father seems to be a given, and LDS leaders have usually spoken of but one Heavenly Mother. Yet this was not always the case. For example, Orson Pratt’s The Seer stated, “But if we have a heavenly Mother as well as a heavenly Father, is it not right that we should worship the Mother of our spirits as well as the Father? No; for the Father of our spirits is at the head of His household, and his wives and children are required to yield the most perfect obedience to their great Head.”  Current temple sealing policies seem to anticipate that there will be polygyny in exaltation, but not polyandry, which suggests androcentrism and represents a significant eternal disparity between exalted men and women. 
- Name. The name of the Father has been revealed and plays an important role in temple worship. The name of the Mother has not. 
- Temple liturgy. Heavenly Mother is absent from it entirely and thus absent from its representation of creation of the world, as is Eve. This stands in contrast to Elohim and Adam as Michael, who are both involved in the pre-mortal creation. 
- Soteriology. Confession of and belief in God the Father is essential for baptism into the LDS church and thus, essential for salvation. Confession of and belief in God the Mother is entirely optional. 
Many have attempted to ease these disparities by asserting that “God the Father” is, socially, a composite of both Heavenly Father and Heavenly Mother. For example, in her testimony for Mormon Scholars Testify, Valerie Hudson Cassler writes: “The Restored Gospel teaches that the term ‘God’ means an exalted woman and an exalted man married in the new and everlasting covenant (D&C 132:19-20).”  Hudson is not the innovator of this interpretation of Mormon exaltation, for it has been taught by LDS leaders for some time. The apostle Erastus Snow intimated (1878):
“What,” says one, “do you mean we should understand that Deity consists of man and woman?” Most certainly I do. If I believe anything that God has ever said about himself, and anything pertaining to the creation and organization of man upon the earth, I must believe that Deity consists of man and woman. . . .
I sometimes illustrate this matter by taking up a pair of shears, if I have one, but then you all know they are composed of two halves, but they are necessarily parts, one of another, and to perform their work for each other, as designed, they belong together, and neither one of them is fitted for the accomplishment of their works alone. And for this reason says St. Paul, “the man is not without the woman, nor the woman without the man in the Lord.” In other words, there can be no God except he is composed of the man and woman united, and there is not in all the eternities that exist, nor ever will be, a God in any other way. 
Nevertheless, this interpretation of Mormon deity stands in tension with other teachings on the Godhead, which distinctly hold that the Godhead consists of three entirely male persons: God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost.  A paradox is then evoked: it is possible to have a Godhead absent of female divinity, but not a God.
In any case, my conclusion so far is that the nature of exaltation for Mormon men is relatively certain, while the nature of exaltation for Mormon women is highly speculative and uncertain. Mormons have much to do if they wish to address this disparity, and I am not certain it can ever be truly remedied absent an official and authoritative pronouncement on the matter from LDS leaders.
 Glenn L. Pace, “The Divine Nature and Destiny of Women,” Devotional, delivered at Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 9 March 2010.
 Living men are permitted to be sealed to multiple women, living or deceased, in the case of death of spouse or even divorce. Living women are only permitted to be sealed to one man at a time. Deceased women may be sealed to any deceased husbands they were married to in life. This seems more geared towards giving such women the opportunity to choose a husband in the next life rather than allowing post-mortem polyandry.
 I am indebted to Lynnette of Zelophehad’s Daughters for this observation.
 Again, my debt to Lynnette knows no bounds.
 Valerie Hudson Cassler, “I am a Mormon Because I am a Feminist,” Mormon Scholars Testify, posted September 2010, retrieved 1-1-2013.
 Erastus Snow, Journal of Discourses 19:269-70, 3 March 1878.
 See, for example, the section on “Godhead” at LDS.org’s “Gospel Topics”: “The Church’s first article of faith states, “We believe in God, the Eternal Father, and in His Son, Jesus Christ, and in the Holy Ghost.” These three beings make up the Godhead. They preside over this world and all other creations of our Father in Heaven.